HOW TO KEEP AMERICA STRONG AND FREE
By Jim Jess
The Bible, God's Word, teaches that God gave man freedom of will, or
individual liberty, which is the basis for political freedom. God
made man with the ability to reason and exercise free will to make
choices and decisions. Our Founding Fathers understood the importance
of this individual liberty and established a framework to secure
liberty for future generations, the U.S. Constitution. But each
generation must be vigilant to guard the freedoms won by previous
generations and, in some cases, regain liberty that has been lost.
One of the
responsibilities of government is to secure or protect the freedom of
individuals within the society, be it a city, state or nation.
Another duty of government is to ensure that its people are protected
from harm or violence from external enemies who would harm or enslave
them. In order to provide this protection, governments establish law
enforcement structures, court systems, and national defense programs
– all to accomplish three of the purposes of government
described in the Preamble to the United States Constitution:
“establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for
the common defence.” These three purposes sum up much of what
is required of our government to keep our nation strong and free.
examination of the record of Jehoshaphat, one of the kings of Judah
in Old Testament times, will give us some great understanding about
how to keep our nation strong and free by applying principles from
the Scriptures. In contrast to the ever-shifting approaches of our
day, a biblical approach to maintaining our nation’s freedom
involves not only principles for preserving individual freedom, but
also principles for maintaining national freedom or independence. Our
nation's early statesmen referred to this as national sovereignty,
which is the right of a nation to manage its affairs free of the
influence or control of other nations. In
the book of II Chronicles, we will investigate the reign of
Jehoshaphat and how he applied several basic principles in order to
keep the Kingdom of Judah strong and free. Additional scriptures
relating to some of these principles will be reviewed as well.
The key principles for this study are five in number:
Keeping God First
God's Word in the Nation
Strong Military Defenses
Civil Stability through the Rule of Law
will examine how King Jehoshaphat applied these first three
principles and the results he achieved. Next we will look at the
fourth principle through the experiences of Jehoshaphat when he
failed to avoid an entangling alliance. Finally, we will see what
Jehoshaphat did to ensure civil stability in Judah. When Judah
honestly and diligently applied these principles, no nation was a
threat to its sovereignty or independence. In every instance when the
people abandoned these principles by turning away from the one true
God, the nation was enslaved. For freedom to continue in our nation,
we must pursue a program that adheres to these principles and follows
the conditions of God's Word for the times in which we live.
Keeping God First
is not the first principle mentioned in chapter 17 of II Chronicles,
but following the one true God was the first commandment and the
first responsibility of the children of Israel, which included the
Kingdom of Judah.
II Chronicles 17:3, 4:
And the Lord was with
Jehoshaphat, because he walked in the first ways of his father David,
and sought not unto Baalim;
sought to the Lord
God of his father, and walked in his commandments, and not after the
doings of Israel.
followed what Jesus Christ later called the "first and great
commandment" in Matthew 22:37 and 38. Jehoshaphat loved God with
all his heart, soul and mind. He kept God first in his heart and
thinking. He avoided the idol worship and idolatrous lifestyles
associated with false gods such as Baalim and popularized by the
kings of Israel after Judah and Israel had split into two kingdoms.
At this very time, Ahab, the king of Israel, and his wicked wife
Jezebel, were supporting hundreds of prophets of the false god Baal
and encouraging devil-worship and rebellion against the true God in
Israel. Jehoshaphat, in marked contrast to the winds of doctrine of
his time, chose to serve the one true God and set a godly, righteous
example for the people of Judah. The results were positively
II Chronicles 17:5:
Therefore the Lord stablished
the kingdom in his [Jehoshaphat's] hand; and all Judah brought to
Jehoshaphat presents; and he had riches and honour in abundance.
caused Jehoshaphat to prosper because he carried out His Word. But
Jehoshaphat decided to do even more.
And his heart was lifted up in the ways of the Lord: moreover he took
away the high places and groves out of Judah.
we see the impact of Jehoshaphat's stand through actions that all of
his people could see. King Jehoshaphat decided to carry out the
Mosaic Law concerning idolatry and destroyed the "high places"
and "groves" associated with idol worship. Since God's
people were to have no other gods, Jehoshaphat would not tolerate the
presence of idols designed to draw them away from the one true God.
To allow the presence of these idols was contrary to God's laws,
which he was determined to carry out.
our day, however, it is not our place to remove idols, unless of
course it is on a piece of property we own. If we hold legal title to
a property, then it would be within our responsibility, and the
correct biblical action would be to get rid of such idols. We have
the right to control what comes into our homes, and the right to
eliminate things from our homes or property that do not contribute to
a godly atmosphere. If we own a business, we have the same authority
and responsibility. If we work for someone else, we may have some
responsibility, but the owner or manager above us would have the
ultimate authority to support or overrule our decisions.
have the biblical right and responsibility to steward those things
with which we are entrusted. If someone else's property were
involved, only a danger to our life and liberty or an eminent threat
to the welfare of the community would justify our involvement in our
neighbor's use of his own property. While we have the moral right to
speak out against something that is evil, we may not have the legal
authority to change something. Whether we can change something or
not, it is always our right as sons of God to speak the Word that can
bring deliverance in a situation.
did have the power, though, to change things in Judah. He was
responsible, as the king, to lead his people according to God's laws.
He set a great example for the kingdom by his commitment to God, as
exemplified by his orders to take away the idols. But he did not stop
The Teaching of God's Word
II Chronicles 17:7-9:
Also in the third year of his reign he [Jehoshaphat] sent to his princes,
to Benhail, and to Obadiah, and to Zechariah, and to Nethaneel, and to Michaiah, to teach in the cities of Judah.
And with them he sent
Shemaiah, and Nethaniah, and Zebadiah, and Asahel, and Shemiramoth,
and Jehonathan, and Adonijah, and Tobijah, and Tobadonijah, Levites;
and with them Elishama and Jehoram, priests.
And they taught in Judah, and had
the book of the law of the Lord with them, and went about throughout
all the cities of Judah, and taught the people.
instituted an educational program to instruct his people in the Word
of God. The five princes mentioned in verse 7 implemented this
program, and it was carried out by the nine Levites (members of the
tribe responsible for the care of the Temple and other spiritual
matters) and the two priests (who also were Levites) named in verse
8. These teachers of the "law of the Lord" fanned out
across the kingdom to teach the people. If anyone was ignorant of
God's Word in Judah, they did not have to stay that way. Spiritual
truths and God's standards for life were set before the people. The
truth of the first and great commandment, to love God with all the
heart, soul and mind was heralded throughout the land. This teaching
of the Word was an element of great spiritual significance that
contributed in a singular way to Judah remaining a free and sovereign
Strong Military Defenses
II Chronicles 17:1:
And Jehoshaphat his son...
was the son of Asa, the previous king, who had also loved and served
II Chronicles 17:1:
in his [Asa's] stead, and strengthened himself against Israel.
"strengthened himself against Israel" because the kingdom
of Israel was ruled by the wicked king Ahab and his devilish wife
Jezebel. Later, as we shall see, Jehoshaphat formed an alliance with
Ahab and nearly lost his life. But early in his reign, he behaved
himself wisely and established his kingdom by applying principles of
And he [Jehoshaphat] placed
forces in all the fenced cities of Judah, and set garrisons in the
land of Judah, and in the cities of Ephraim, which Asa his father had
strength was a key element in keeping Judah strong and free. Judah’s
physical defenses – its national defense arsenal and its troops
– were adequate to defend Judah and intimidate any potential
enemy who was considering an attack. While this is not the most
important spiritual principle, it is the first one mentioned in this
passage. Jehoshaphat strategically deployed his forces and weaponry
so that his nation would be able to resist and defend itself against
would-be attackers, especially the armies of Israel who might try to
win back hard-won territories such as the cities of Ephraim which
King Asa, Jehoshaphat's father, had captured.
continued development of military technology is an important aspect
of military strength. In the dangerous world in which we live, we
cannot skimp on the research and development of defense technology.
In order to supply the most up-to-date tools with which to equip our
national defense arsenals, research and development must constantly
move forward. Our arsenals should exist to defend our nation, not to
start new wars. As President John Quincy Adams said, America "goes
not abroad in search of monsters to destroy," because such an
interventionist philosophy is inconsistent with the principles of
liberty and free societies. We must, however, have the finest
military weaponry with which to beat back the "monsters" if
they should threaten our territory.
another of the kings of Judah who loved God, highly developed Judah’s
military capabilities in his day.
II Chronicles 26:14 and 15:
And Uzziah prepared for them throughout all the host shields, and spears,
and helmets, and habergeons, and bows, and slings to
And he made in Jerusalem engines, invented by cunning men, to be on the
towers and upon the bulwarks, to shoot arrows and great stones
withal. And his name spread far abroad; for he was marvellously
helped till he was strong.
the men of his army, Uzziah had defensive weaponry prepared, which
included shields to protect his men from flying arrows and stones and
the blows of swords; helmets to protect the head; and habergeons,
which were coats of mail. A coat of mail, which covered the neck and
breast, consisted of a base garment with flat pieces of metal sewn on
it. The metal pieces would overlap one another like shingles or the
scales of a fish and thus protect the body from injury.
Uzziah also had offensive weaponry prepared. These included spears, which
were used as javelins to cover short distances, and lances for closer
contact with opposing troops; bows and slings, which could be used to
shoot arrows and sling stones with great accuracy from a distance;
and "engines," which were perhaps the latest in weapons
technology for that day.
customs scholar James Freeman believes that Uzziah's development of
these "engines" was the origin of what became known as
balista and catapulta.
These weapons later became legendary through their successful use by
the armies of Rome. Balista were used to launch stones weighing from fifty to as much as three
hundred pounds. Catapulta were used to shoot darts or arrows. Both were powered by elastic
string composed of twisted hairs, thongs, or plant fibers.
These large weapons were
placed along the tops and corners of the wall of the city or in
hollows along the outside of the wall. These strategic positions were
called bulwarks, or battlements, and were ideal locations for
catapults and ballistae. From the battlements, these launching
weapons could threaten invading armies over a wide area.
is significant indeed if Uzziah was the first to develop such
weaponry. But then, why should it be surprising? Proverbs 8:12 says,
"I wisdom [referring to the wisdom of God] dwell with prudence,
And find out knowledge of witty inventions." God's people should
be the first to come up with the best new inventions, including those
that might be necessary to provide for the defense of a nation. This
is another reason for continuing research and development in weapons
technology today, regardless of the threat – or absence thereof
– that we perceive at this moment. We do not know what is
"lurking in the weeds," so to speak, and we had better be
ready with the best we can muster to defend ourselves.
the 1990s, drastic cuts in U.S. military expenditures appeared
expedient to many. Military planners viewed a world in which the
threat of nuclear annihilation had diminished. While the level of
tension between the governments of the U.S. and the former U.S.S.R.
had subsided, a rapid turn of events could have quickly swept
"democratic reforms" under the rug and authoritarians could
have returned to power. Some argue that they already have, given the
repression of some freedoms under the present regime in Russia.
Stalinist version of Soviet Communism is no longer in vogue, but many
communists still hold positions of authority within Russia and other
nations of the former Soviet multi-national state. The communist
masters of the former Soviet “republic” of Kazakhstan
took control of that country upon the break-up of the U.S.S.R. Nearby Turkmenistan, which borders Iran, continues to be ruled as a
one-party state by an authoritarian system. Many of the other former
Soviet "colonies" are living under some form of "democratic
socialism." Former communists have even regained influence in
Poland, which was the first Soviet satellite nation to break from
Moscow and hold free elections after the fall of Soviet Communism.
Given the number of nuclear weapons controlled by the former Soviet
Union, the danger of a government unfriendly to the U.S. acquiring
one of these weapons is a continuing threat. Add to this the threats
posed by international terrorism of the Islamic fundamentalist
variety, and it becomes clear why our nation cannot fall behind in
developing new technology that will enhance our defenses.
must continue to fund military research and development of defense
technology as a basic element of a strong national defense. This is
more important than how much nuclear firepower we have versus how
much our enemies have. The development of new military technologies
could allow the U.S. to make significant breakthroughs that would
provide an additional layer of national defense capabilities.
important strategy for a strong military is to recruit and deploy
personnel who maintain high physical, ethical and moral standards. A
chain is only as strong as its weakest link. It must be a priority of
national policy to fill the ranks of our armed forces with the best
available men and women to defend our nation when necessary.
Successfully implementing this strategy can make the difference in
victory or defeat on the battlefield. The American people and their
government must demonstrate a commitment to military personnel and
take the necessary actions to support our military men and women.
Furthermore, the standards by which our armed forces operate must be
based on the principles of liberty and wisdom upon which our nation
the days of King David, great value was placed on the valor of the
men who served in the army of Israel. The qualities of these men
provide an excellent standard for the fighting men of our day.
I Chronicles 11:11-23:
And this is
the number of the mighty men whom David had; Jashobeam, an
Hachmonite, the chief of the captains: he lifted up his spear against
three hundred slain by him
And after him was
Eleazar the son of Dodo, the Ahohite, who was
the three mighties.
He was with David at Pasdammim, and there the Philistines were gathered
together to battle, where was a parcel of ground full of barley; and
the people fled from before the Philistines.
And they set themselves in the midst of that
parcel, and delivered it, and slew the Philistines; and the Lord
by a great deliverance.
Now three of the thirty captains went down to the rock to David, into the
cave of Adullam; and the host of the Philistines encamped in the
valley of Rephaim.
And David was
then in the hold, and the Philistines' garrison was then at Bethlehem.
And David longed, and said, Oh that one would give me drink of the water
of the well of Bethlehem, that is
at the gate!
And the three brake through the host of the Philistines, and drew water
out of the well of Bethlehem, that was
by the gate, and took it
and brought it
to David: but David would not drink of
it, but poured it out to the Lord.
And said, My God forbid it me, that I should do this thing: shall I drink
the blood of these men that have put their lives in jeopardy? for
with the jeopardy of
their lives they brought it. Therefore he would not drink it. These things did these three mightiest.
And Abishai the brother of Joab, he was chief of the three: for lifting
up his spear against three hundred, he slew them
and had a name among the three.
Of the three, he was more honourable than the two; for he was their
captain: howbeit he attained not to the first
Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, the son of a valiant man of Kabzeel, who had
done many acts; he slew two lionlike men of Moab: also he went down
and slew a lion in a pit on a snowy day.
And he slew an Egyptian, a man of great
stature, five cubits high; and in the Egyptian's hand was
a spear like a weaver's beam; and he went down to him with a staff,
and plucked the spear out of the Egyptian's hand, and slew him with
his own spear.
such as these are needed in the armed forces of our nation today.
Qualities such as fearless believing and courage are impossible if
someone lives in fear, so we must have well-trained men and women who
think like champions and fight like they intend to win. Another
important quality of these "mighty men" was their devotion
to their leader, in this case, King David. And because they were
capable of carrying out orders and going beyond the call of duty,
they were entrusted with leadership responsibilities themselves. The
qualities of the men of valor who served David and their ability to
lead those under their command contributed to the impregnability of
the army of Israel when the king and the people followed God.
order to maintain its fighting spirit and esprit de corps,
the presence of homosexuals and lesbians in the armed forces of the
United States should not be permitted. Their presence only detracts
from the strength of our forces. In time of war, the homosexual
component in our forces can lead to the undermining of the morale –
and therefore the believing – of the troops.
Bible teaches in Romans chapter 1 and in numerous Old Testament
scriptures that homosexuality is wrong and evil.
For this cause God gave them up unto vile affections: for even their women did change the natural
use into that which is against nature:
And likewise also the men,
leaving the natural use of the woman, burned in their lust one toward
another; men with men working that which is unseemly, and receiving
in themselves that recompence of their error which was meet.
even as they did not like to retain God in their
God gave them over to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are
Verse 28 says that a homosexual has a reprobate mind. This is a mind void
of judgment. Homosexuals do not think or reason in a sound manner.
They do not make good decisions, most obviously demonstrated by their
unnatural and unhealthy sexual practices. They expose themselves to a
number of health problems that result from their high-risk behavior.
The way they behave is contrary to any definition of a healthy
Homosexuality is not a civil rights issue, but a behavioral one. Whereas the racial
integration of the U.S. armed forces made perfect sense because
African-Americans had been discriminated against solely on the basis
of their race, this is not the case for homosexuals. The only thing
that distinguishes homosexuals from anyone else is their unnatural
and depraved sexual practices.
In battlefield situations, the cohesion of military units is a key
component to victory. Such cohesion is threatened by the presence of
homosexuals. In addition, the AIDS epidemic would only be unleashed
further if homosexual activity is encouraged, and certainly it would
be if more homosexuals were encouraged to enter the armed forces. The
full ban on homosexuals and lesbians serving in our military should
Judah's Successful "Freedom Policy"
result of the actions just described – namely loving God first
and eliminating idolatry, having God's Word taught in the nation and
maintaining a military strong enough to discourage potential enemies
– brought unparalleled strength, prosperity, and civil calm to
Judah. Judah's sovereignty was secure.
II Chronicles 17:10-13:
And the fear [respect] of the Lord fell upon all the kingdoms of the
lands that were
round about Judah, so that they made no war against Jehoshaphat.
of the Philistines brought Jehoshaphat presents, and tribute silver;
and the Arabians brought him flocks, seven thousand and seven hundred
rams, and seven thousand and seven hundred he goats.
And Jehoshaphat waxed great exceedingly; and he built in Judah castles,
and cities of store.
And he had much business in the cities of Judah: and the men of war,
mighty men of valour, were
Jehoshaphat and the kingdom of Judah prospered and earned the respect of all the
countries around them. No one dared lift a finger against Judah
militarily because they would have been obliterated. Even the
unbelievers in the surrounding countries brought gifts to
Jehoshaphat. Judah remained sovereign and free as a nation.
first three principles in operation could be thought of as a "freedom
policy" or "national sovereignty policy" for Judah.
These first three principles are the foundational elements for the
sovereignty of a nation. The last two are important as well and we
will examine them next.
Avoiding Entangling Alliances
time after Jehoshaphat had established his three-point "freedom
policy," a situation placed Judah and King Jehoshaphat in grave
danger. This situation was the result of an ungodly alliance that
Jehoshaphat established with Ahab, the wicked king of Israel. For a
nation to remain strong and free, and maintain its sovereignty, it
should steer clear of entangling alliances. In this matter, the great
king, Jehoshaphat, who had walked so well for God previously, made a
serious error in judgment. And it almost cost him his life.
II Chronicles 18:1:
Now Jehoshaphat had riches and honour in abundance, and joined affinity
made an alliance with Ahab, the wicked king of Israel. The Scriptures
speak plainly about the wickedness of Ahab.
I Kings 16:30-33:
And Ahab the son of Omri did evil in the sight of the Lord above all that
And it came to pass, as if it had been a light thing for him to walk in
the sins of Jereboam the son of Nebat, that he took to wife Jezebel
the daughter of Ethbaal king of the Zidonians, and went and served
Baal [an idol, a false god], and worshipped him.
And he reared up an altar for Baal in the house of Baal, which he had
built in Samaria.
And Ahab made a grove [another false god]; and Ahab did more to provoke
the Lord God of Israel to anger than all the kings of Israel that
were before him.
According to II Chronicles 21:6, a major element in "joining affinity with
Ahab" was the marriage of Jehoram, Jehoshaphat's son, to the
daughter of Ahab. Thus, the evil associated with the house of Ahab
could spread to Jehoshaphat and his family through his
II Chronicles 18:2 and 3:
And after certain
years he [Jehoshaphat] went down to Ahab to Samaria. And Ahab killed
sheep and oxen for him in abundance, and for the people that he had
with him, and persuaded him to go up with him to Ramoth-gilead.
And Ahab king of Israel said unto Jehoshaphat king of Judah, Wilt thou go
with me to Ramoth-gilead? And he [Jehoshaphat] answered him, I am
as thou art
, and my people as thy people; and we
with thee in the war.
Jehoshaphat had said to Ahab, "I am as thou art."
He was probably referring to the two men's common ancestry in the
house of Israel, and perhaps their family ties. This and the fact
that they were both kings were about the only things these two had in
common. Ahab was an idolater, married to a wicked woman from a nation
of idolatrous pagans. Jehoshaphat was a wonderful man, who – up
to this point – had really walked for the one true God. But he
failed to recognize the spiritual wickedness with which he was
When Jehoshaphat went to Samaria to visit Ahab, Ahab undoubtedly "wined
and dined" him in the grandest style of the day. Ahab was
diplomatic, patriotic, and said all of the right lines. And at just
the right moment, he popped the big question. "You'll help me
fight these heathens, won't you?"
Jehoshaphat was taken in, and wanting to be a fine and patriotic statesman
himself, agreed to do Ahab's bidding. II Chronicles 18:4-27 shows how
Jehoshaphat believed they should consult with a prophet, a man of
God, before they went into battle. Ahab obliged him by producing not
just one but four hundred prophets—false prophets – who
prophesied that victory would be theirs and that they should seize
the moment. Jehoshaphat was not altogether pleased with this answer
and asked further for a "prophet of the Lord besides, that we
might inquire of him."
Ahab produced a true prophet of God who prophesied disaster if the two
kings went to fight at Ramoth-gilead. Ahab then vilified the true
prophet and had him imprisoned. One wonders what was going on in
Jehoshaphat's mind at this time. Evidently, it was not enough to
change his mind, because II Chronicles 18:28 indicates that the two
kings headed out for the battle.
At this point, Ahab came up with a devilishly-inspired plan which put
Jehoshaphat's life in real danger.
II Chronicles 18:29:
And the king of Israel said unto Jehoshaphat, I will disguise myself, and
will go to the battle; but put thou on thy robes. So the king of
Israel disguised himself; and they went to the battle.
Ahab would appear to be a regular soldier to the enemy, but Jehoshaphat
would be noticeable in his royal garb.
Now the king of Syria had commanded the captains of the chariots that
with him, saying, Fight ye not with small or great, save only with
the king of Israel.
What the Syrian army did not know was that Jehoshaphat, the king of Judah,
would be the only man dressed in royal garments among the armies of
Israel and Judah that day.
Verses 31 and 32:
And it came to pass, when the captains of the chariots saw Jehoshaphat,
that they said, It is
the king of Israel. Therefore they compassed about him to fight: but
Jehoshaphat cried out, and the Lord helped him; and God moved them to depart
For it came to pass, that, when the captains of the chariots perceived
that it was not the king of Israel, they turned back again from
God saved Jehoshaphat when Jehoshaphat turned to God and requested His
help, even though he was behaving contrary to God's will. Jehoshaphat
had entered into an alliance with an ungodly man whom the god of this
world, Satan, used to nearly bring about Jehoshaphat's death. God
brought about a miracle. The Syrians recognized that Jehoshaphat was
not the king of Israel and spared Jehoshaphat's life. Ahab, according
to verses 33 and 34, was shot at random by an archer and died in the
battle. Israel was not victorious that day, as the false prophets had
prophesied, but was defeated, as the true prophet of God had
indicated they would be.
When Jehoshaphat arrived home, he was reproved by another prophet of the
II Chronicles 19:1-3:
And Jehoshaphat the king of Judah returned to his house in peace to
And Jehu the son of Hanani the seer [prophet] went out to meet him, and
said to king Jehoshaphat, Shouldest thou help the ungodly, and love
them that hate the Lord? therefore is
wrath upon thee from before the Lord.
Nevertheless there are good things found in thee, in that thou hast taken away the
groves out of the land, and hast prepared thine heart to seek God.
Regardless of how wonderfully Jehoshaphat had conducted his life and the rule of
his kingdom previously, he made a major mistake in forming an
alliance with Ahab and providing assistance in the war against the
Syrians. If Ahab was an ungodly man, was it likely that his
objectives in this battle were godly ones? Jehoshaphat had allied
himself with someone who had very different values and objectives
from himself. But more importantly, Ahab was spiritually depraved
because of his rebellion against the true God.
Whenever nations form military alliances, the potential for armed conflict is
spread to more parties. Of course, the idea behind such alliances is
that allies present a stronger challenge to a potential aggressor
than one nation alone; and the aggressor would be discouraged from
taking military action against such a united front. In the case of
Ahab and Jehoshaphat, Ahab merely wanted Judah’s military
strength to fight the Syrians. It is not apparent that there was any
benefit at all to the Kingdom of Judah for helping Israel against the
Syrians. Ahab simply used his family ties to take advantage of
Jehoshaphat’s good will.
Are all alliances "ungodly"? Perhaps not, but an alliance may
unwittingly be formulated in order to achieve some noble objective
that later infringes upon the liberties of freedom-loving peoples.
This may occur if ungodly or misguided men develop an alliance, or if
one or more of the parties to the alliance are dishonest or have a
secret agenda that would give them an advantage at the expense of the
An important point should be mentioned at this juncture. It is
difficult, today, to label a nation an "ungodly nation," in
the way that nations were in the Old Testament. In Old Testament
times, Israel was the nation of God's chosen people. Other nations
that opposed Israel were filled with people who were idolaters and
sought to destroy Israel. These were "ungodly nations."
The United States today is not the modern Israel, contrary to what some
have taught. Some religious leaders propound that God instituted a
covenant relationship when the Pilgrims and Puritans came to what is
now the United States, but there is no biblical evidence to indicate
that anything like this is available in our day. God established his
covenant with Israel in the Old Testament and sealed it with the
Today, we live in what the Bible teaches is the Age of Grace, or Grace
Administration. In our day, people in many nations are born again of
God's spirit. These believers are sons of God by birth and have no
need for a covenant relationship. A "new covenant" will
indeed be instituted in the future, but only after the return of
Christ and several other events have occurred.
In light of these truths, it is difficult to designate nations of the
world today as "ungodly" in the way that term was used in
the Old Testament. Today, some countries might well deserve the title
of "ungodly nation," due to the consistent and nearly
unanimous idolatry of their people. With respect to foreign policy,
we must realize that ungodly and even wicked leaders rule or have
great influence in most nations – including the United States.
Our government was formed to secure the liberty of its people and to
rule by "consent of the governed." For our elected public
servants to contract alliances with ungodly leaders who do not rule
by "consent of the governed" may not be the wisest course
of action. The United States should conduct foreign relations with
nations that govern themselves based on the consent of their people.
must have an interest in accomplishing something mutually beneficial
if they are to agree to a treaty, and no nation should ignore its own
national interests or sacrifice its sovereignty in order to adopt a
treaty that will benefit a privileged group within the society, be it
one with a self-serving financial interest or a narrow ideological
one. The wrong treaty can dramatically impact the people within a
nation in a negative manner if wisdom is not used in framing such
agreements. The Treaty of Versailles, which concluded World War I, is
considered by many to be a factor that contributed to the rise of
Hitler in Germany, which led to the outbreak of World War II. The
treaty punished the German people so harshly due to the amount of the
reparations that Germany had to pay that the German economy faltered
for years. The economic hardships in Germany provided the opportunity
for someone like Adolf Hitler to come along and capitalize on the
public’s discontent. He built on their discontent and anger by
pointing to the harshness of the treatment of Germany by the Allies.
In time, he became very popular, eventually rising to the position of
Chancellor in Germany. Once this occurred and Hitler had consolidated
his power, his drive for power was unchecked and he pursued the path
to war with his neighbors. While the treaty appeared initially to be
beneficial to the Allies, it was a disaster for Germany, and
ultimately, the rest of the world.
An important consideration for U.S. foreign policy should be to avoid
contracting alliances with nations dominated by ungodly men and
women, particularly those who oppress their people and pursue
objectives that only serve the interests of the governmental leaders.
Alliances with these nations will only bear bitter fruit. Such
arrangements could endanger our sovereignty, prosperity, and the
lives of our citizens by drawing us into wars and other costly
military adventures. Even if such warfare is avoided, these alliances
tend to set up relationships in which the U.S. taxpayers become the
"bank" for a host of nations seeking financial assistance.
Such financial "aid" deprives our citizens of their
hard-earned dollars, enriches corrupt foreign leaders and launches
foolhardy schemes to improve the lot of the impoverished. This would
be an easier pill to swallow if, at the least, some of these
"anti-poverty" and "development" programs
The numerous interlocking alliances that the U.S. has concluded with
other nations only serve to magnify the power of those in positions
of authority. Such agreements offer our leaders more opportunities to
make decisions that might compromise our freedom, and more chances to
construct a U.S.-United Nations-led global empire. History has shown
that empires are generally incompatible with individual liberty. As
the empire grows and the political leaders seek more and more power,
the individual and his rights become less and less important. The
history of the now-defunct Soviet Union is testimony to this reality.
As Josef Stalin's power grew, for instance, he conducted widespread
purges by murdering his opponents. After World War II, when he
subjugated the nations of eastern Europe, he maintained a repressive
police state within the Soviet Union, ready to murder any dissenters
as "counter-revolutionaries." He encouraged his handpicked
tyrants in the “captive nations” of Europe to follow his
example of leadership.
God's Word does not record to what extent Jehoshaphat accepted the reproof
from God's prophet concerning his ungodly alliance with Ahab. Based
on the information in II Chronicles 20:35-37, however, Jehoshaphat
had not fully learned this lesson of avoiding ungodly alliances.
These verses tell how, sometime later, he formed a commercial
agreement with Ahaziah, king of Israel, the son of Ahab. The two
kings pooled their resources to make ships that would sail to
Tarshish. But God spoke by the prophet Eliezer and told Jehoshaphat
that because of this arrangement with the wicked son of Ahab "the
Lord hath broken thy works." The result was that "the ships
were broken, that they were not able to go to Tarshish."
This speaks loudly to believers in our day, particularly in light of the
Scriptures in epistles to the Church.
II Corinthians 6:14 and 15:
Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers: for what fellowship
hath righteousness with unrighteousness? and what communion hath
light with darkness?
And what concord hath Christ with Belial? or what part hath he that
believeth with an infidel?
individual is free to determine what agreements they will make in
their personal and business relationships. Believers are to avoid
"unequal yokes," however. An "unequal yoke" for
an individual is the same basic idea as an "entangling alliance"
for a nation. Political leaders are not likely to be aware of the
biblical principle regarding being unequally yoked with the wicked in
entangling alliances. Perhaps the best recommendation for leaders in
our nation would be to follow the advice of Thomas Jefferson
concerning relations with foreign powers: "Peace, commerce and
honest friendship with all nations— entangling alliances with
Maintaining Civil Stability through the Rule of Law
the prophet Hanani reproved Jehoshaphat for his military adventure
with Ahab, Jehoshaphat strengthened the Kingdom of Judah by taking
actions to ensure greater domestic stability. No nation can remain
strong if civil authority breaks down at home. Jehoshaphat
appropriately began his reform in Israel by reinvigorating the
biblical education program he had begun some time before.
II Chronicles 19:4:
And Jehoshaphat dwelt at Jerusalem: and he went out again through the
people from Beersheba to mount Ephraim, and brought them back unto
the Lord God of their fathers.
does not say exactly what Jehoshaphat did to "bring the people
back to God," but it must have involved reading and teaching
from the Mosaic Law. The fact that he had to "bring them back"
indicates there may have been a lapse in this godly education
program. The re-initiation of this biblical education would have
resulted in greater freedom, peace and stability among the people of
Judah and other tribes of Israel that lived in these areas.
order to maintain and correctly apply the standards of God's law that
were being taught in Judah's society, Jehoshaphat set up a judicial
system with judges in a number of locations. They would hear matters
of dispute between parties and correctly apply the Law of Moses.
he set judges in the land throughout all the fenced cities of Judah,
city by city,
said to the judges, Take heed what ye do: for ye judge not for man,
but for the Lord, who is with you in the judgment.
Wherefore now let the fear of the Lord be upon you; take heed and do it:
no iniquity with the Lord our God, nor respect of persons, nor taking
the law was silent, or did not indicate a particular course of
action, judges were to believe God to show them the best solutions.
Jehoshaphat put judicial deliberations in the proper perspective when
he told them, "Ye judge not for man, but for the Lord." One
wonders what sort of decisions would come out of our contemporary
judicial systems if jurists made their rulings in light of what God
and His Word indicate are important. In the end, God, the righteous
judge, will hold the final judgment and will hold all accountable for
Our God shall come, and shall not keep silence: a fire shall devour
before him, and it shall be very tempestuous round about him.
He shall call the heavens from above, and to the earth, that he may
judge his people.
Gather my saints together unto me; those that have made a covenant with me
And the heavens shall declare his righteousness:
for God is
judge himself. Selah.
For we shall all stand before the judgment seat of Christ.
For it is written, As
I live, saith the Lord, every knee shall bow to me,
and every tongue shall confess to God.
then every one of us shall give account of himself to God.
Scriptures bring a sobering perspective to a discussion about
temporal, political authorities. While the politicians, the
power-brokers, and the special interests may have their say today, on
the day that God renders His judgment, the men of renown will be
measured by God's standards. The judges of our day would do well to
make their judgments with one eye on eternity, as opposed to an eye
on their current position politically or in the legal community.
Of special importance in II Chronicles 19:7 is the ban on the "taking
of gifts." This is in reference to bribes. The judges were not
to receive bribes, for if they did, their judgment would be obscured
and they could not judge with a clear mind. The Mosaic Law had
something to say of bribes and the effect they have on the receiver
Thou shalt not wrest [pervert] judgment; thou shalt not respect persons,
neither take a gift: for a gift doth blind the eyes of the wise, and
pervert the words of the righteous.
also set up what appears to have been an appeals court, or "court
of last resort" in Jerusalem. One might reasonably compare this
court to our U.S. Supreme Court, which is our nation's highest court.
II Chronicles 19:8:
Moreover in Jerusalem did Jehoshaphat set of the Levites [members of the
priestly tribe or class], and of
the priests [Levites who served as priests], and of the chief of the
fathers of Israel, for the judgment of the Lord, and for
controversies, when they returned to Jerusalem.
If controversies were so great that a party did not find satisfaction at
the lower court in one of the fenced cities, the case could be
appealed to this high court in Jerusalem. So If a situation could be
resolved nowhere else, this court would have the final say.
And he [Jehoshaphat] charged them, saying, Thus shall ye do in the fear
[respect] of the Lord, faithfully, and with a perfect heart.
though Jehoshaphat was the king, the highest civil authority in the
land, he charged those with the highest spiritual authority (since
this group included priests) to faithfully judge for God.
Verse 10 and 11:
And what cause soever shall come to you of your brethren that dwell in
the cities [this is referring to the lower courts in the fenced
cities and the cases they would send to the higher court], between
blood and blood, between law and commandment, statutes and judgments,
ye shall even warn them that they trespass not against the Lord, and
wrath come upon you, and upon your brethren: this do, and ye shall
And, behold, Amariah the chief priest is
over you in all matters of the Lord; and Zebadiah the son of Ishmael,
the ruler of the house of Judah, for all the king's matters: also the
be officers before you. Deal courageously, and the Lord shall be with
Jehoshaphat told them how the
appeals system should work and how they should be diligent to carry
out God's laws and properly administer them. In addition, he pointed
out that they had qualified spiritual and civil leaders to handle the
affairs of the kingdom and that God would take care of "the
good," those who walked properly before God.
policies that Jehoshaphat pursued after his mistake in forming the
alliance with Ahab set a great foundation for civil stability in
Judah. He brought his people back to God and then instituted a
judicial system to further perpetuate God's laws in his land.
rule of law and the maintenance of civil order and stability is a key
element in maintaining freedom in a nation. The policies of the
government must insure that the rule of law is respected and adhered
to in a society. Without the rule of law, society's stability will be
threatened by civil unrest and violations of the rights of the people
by rebellious individuals and groups. The "social fabric"
would quickly unravel without the rule of law and the enforcement of
the laws of the land.
the early years of our republic, the Congress, President Washington
and his advisors took pains to establish justice and insure domestic
tranquility in the new nation. The Judiciary Act of 1789 established
the federal court system and defined the structure and procedures of
the federal judiciary. It set the number of U.S. Supreme Court
justices at six: one chief justice and five associate justices. (The
number of justices was increased later. Today, the Supreme Court has
nine justices: one chief justice and eight associate justices.) The
act also established thirteen district courts and three circuit
courts. The circuit courts had jurisdiction over appeals that would
arise from the district courts. The act further provided that cases
could be appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court from the federal circuit
courts and the highest court within each state, usually referred to
as a state supreme court. Finally, the Judiciary Act established the
office of attorney general of the United States, whose duty it would
be “to prosecute and conduct all suits in the Supreme Court in
which the United States shall be concerned.” (Today, the
solicitor general of the U.S., who serves in the office of the
attorney general, carries out this function.) The attorney general
was also to provide legal advice to the President and heads of
federal departments when it was requested of him. Washington himself
observed that “the first arrangement of the judicial
department…[was] essential to the happiness of our country and
the stability of its political system.”
are similarities between the way Jehoshaphat organized the court
system in Judah and how it was later organized in the young United
States. The U.S. probably had a larger population than Judah, and a
more complex legal system that had developed from the English common
law. It also had a system of state governments. But what is
similar is that Jehoshaphat set up a system that allowed decisions to
be appealed from the lower courts to a high court in Jerusalem, much
like our Supreme Court. There were also judges that were designated
as such in both systems. And both systems relied on written standards
to ensure civil stability: Judah’s system relied on the Mosaic
Law, and the United States relied on the Constitution and the laws
that were enacted by Congress. Both systems also required a wise
application of principles of the law by its jurists.
Only a few years after the Judiciary Act of 1789 was approved, the new
government under President Washington was tested in its resolve to
uphold the rule of law in order to secure the civil peace during an
uprising known today as the Whiskey Rebellion. In areas such as
western Pennsylvania, citizens living on the frontier developed the
practice of distilling spirits made from grain to make whiskey. They
lived in rugged, mountainous areas and transporting grain to market
was not practical or economically feasible. It made much more sense
to turn their crops into whiskey. They objected, however, to the
excise taxes that the federal government levied on alcohol, and a
popular uprising began to develop in opposition to the excise tax. In
1794, a mob attacked the home of a tax collector in western
Pennsylvania. When a military force responded to the violence, a man
was killed. Violent acts were carried out against government
representatives and local government itself was paralyzed. It
appeared that more violence was to occur.
At this point, Washington called for militia volunteers from the states
and a force of more than twelve thousand assembled. In Washington’s
mind, the object of this entire exercise was “the support of
the laws.” The troops pursued the rebels and encountered no
opposition. In fact, no more lives were lost and no property was
damaged. The two insurrectionists who were captured by the militias
were later pardoned by President Washington.
The rule of law was upheld and civil stability was restored. In addition,
the new federal government had clearly demonstrated its authority.
This did a great deal to help “ensure domestic tranquility”
in the new nation.
The African nation of Somalia offers a grisly example of what can happen
when all governmental authority collapses. That nation has been in
chaos for years, subject to the whims of warlords commanding warring
factions in the chaos of anarchy. The only stability is the temporary
respite offered when a warlord desires a lull in the violence. Untold
thousands have starved and died in the civil strife that continues to
grip that nation. This is an example of the absence of the rule of
law and civil stability. The only wise course for anyone in the
middle of such a situation would be to leave as quickly as possible.
There is no certainty of personal security or civil peace in such an
A British scholar once made the following observation:
We have learnt that barbarism is not a picturesque myth or a
half-forgotten memory of a long-passed stage of history, but an ugly
underlying reality that may erupt with shattering force whenever a
moral authority of a civilization loses its control.
a society does not have a government strong enough to insure domestic
tranquility, and a group of citizens committed to it, it can easily
become the scene of chaos and misery. Once this occurs, it is only a
matter of time until the rise of a tyrant or the maneuvers of another
nation enslave the people. In the first case, the people lose their
liberty. In the second, they lose their liberty and their identity. A
nation cannot long endure without respect for the rule of law and
public policies that ensure civil stability. Of course, to uphold the
law and teach respect for it, there must be strong leadership in the
society. Godly men and women who love God and endeavor to live
according to His Word would offer the best leadership and the
greatest opportunity for civil peace. Our nation has been blessed by
men and women of this caliber at various times in our history, as was
the Kingdom of Judah in the days of Jehoshaphat.
Trusting God for Victory
greatest strength of any nation is the reliance of its people on God
Almighty and His power, strength and wisdom. This principle is really
an extension of the first principle we discussed, the principle of
keeping God first, which would include relying on Him first to supply
the need. The psalmist knew this great truth of giving God His proper
place and documented it.
the nation whose God is
the Lord; and
the people whom
he hath chosen for his own inheritance.
was originally written concerning biblical Israel, but the truth can
apply to any group of people within a nation who follow and serve the
one true God. Our nation today is blessed because of the many men and
women who love God and endeavor to walk according to His Word. Israel
was blessed by God in Jehoshaphat’s day, and this is quite
apparent in the next challenge that faced King Jehoshaphat.
came to Jehoshaphat that an army of Moabites, Ammonites and Edomites
(also referred to as “inhabitants of Mt. Seir”) were
approaching Judah for a battle. Jehoshaphat’s initial reaction
was not to prepare the armed forces, but to ask God for assistance.
Whatever, the force strength of the enemy, it appears that the king
felt the force to be superior to his own army.
II Chronicles 20:3, 4:
And Jehoshaphat feared, and set himself to seek the Lord, and proclaimed
a fast throughout all Judah.
And Judah gathered themselves together, to ask help
of the Lord:
even out of all the cities of Judah they came to seek
During an assembly in the
temple, a prophet of God told the king and the people exactly what
they needed to do to be victorious in this battle.
And he said, Hearken ye, all Judah, and ye inhabitants of Jerusalem, and
thou king Jehoshaphat, Thus saith the Lord unto you, Be not afraid
nor dismayed by reason of this great multitude; for the battle
not yours, but God's.
To morrow go ye down against them: behold,
they come up by the cliff of Ziz; and ye shall find them at the end
of the brook, before the wilderness of Jeruel.
Ye shall not need
to fight in this battle
set yourselves, stand ye still
, and see the salvation of the Lord with you,
O Judah and Jerusalem:
fear not, nor be dismayed; to morrow go out against them: for the
Lord will be with you.
only thing that was required of the army of Judah was that they “go
out against” the enemy and trust God to protect them and give
them victory, even though they would not be required to fight.
And they rose early in the morning, and went forth into the wilderness of
Tekoa: and as they went forth, Jehoshaphat stood and said, Hear me, O
Judah, and ye inhabitants of Jerusalem; Believe in the Lord your God,
so shall ye be established; believe his prophets, so shall ye
encouraged the people to believe God as they embarked on a military
exercise in which they could potentially lose their lives. Their
believing was required if they were to be successful. Then,
Jehoshaphat provided further encouragement to the army as they
marched out to this most unusual battle.
Verses 21, 22:
And when he [King Jehoshaphat] had consulted with the people, he
appointed singers unto the Lord, and that should praise the beauty of
holiness, as they went out before the army, and to say, Praise the
Lord; for his mercy endureth
And when they began to sing and to praise, the Lord set
ambushments against the children of Ammon, Moab, and mount Seir,
which were come against Judah; and they were smitten.
result of what the king had his singers do encouraged the people to
believe for their deliverance and victory in this situation. They did
so and the result was the defeat of the enemy.
Verses 23, 24:
For the children of Ammon and Moab stood up against the inhabitants of
mount Seir, utterly to slay and destroy them
and when they had made an end of the inhabitants of Seir, every one
helped to destroy another.
And when Judah came toward the watch
tower in the wilderness, they looked unto the multitude, and, behold,
dead bodies fallen to the earth, and none escaped.
victory was beyond what anyone could have imagined from a five-senses
evaluation of the battlefield situation. Not a single sword was drawn
nor an arrow shot; yet the victory was stunning. Verse 25 says that
the army of Judah spent three days gathering the spoil, including
riches and jewels, from the dead bodies of the enemy.
Verses 29, 30:
And the fear of God was on all the kingdoms of those
countries, when they had heard that the Lord fought against the
enemies of Israel.
So the realm of Jehoshaphat was quiet: for his
God gave him rest round about.
record shows quite convincingly that God can give the victory even
though the enemy may have superior military strength or more numerous
forces. In another military engagement, the young man Jonathan, the
son of King Saul spoke a great truth.
I Samuel 14:6:
And Jonathan said to the young man that bare his armour, Come, and let us
go over unto the garrison of these uncircumcised: it may be that the
Lord will work for us: for there
restraint to the Lord to save by many or by few.
is still in business and has not changed. He can still give victory
against grave odds when people believe Him and trust Him for
deliverance. The God that gave victory in the Old Testament is the
same God that gives victory to His people in our day. Even in the
early history of our republic, God was there, working in those who
trusted Him to snatch victory from the jaws of defeat.
the Revolutionary War, the American war for independence, many
God-fearing men served in the Continental Army. They were led by a
man who had great respect and reverence for God, General George
Washington. During his presidency, in his Thanksgiving Day
Proclamation dated October 3, 1789, Washington mentioned Almighty God
several times, including a passage referring to God’s help in
the formative years of the nation and during the war for
we may then all unite in rendering unto Him our sincere and humble
thanks for His kind care and protection of the people of this country
previous to their becoming a nation; for the signal and manifold
mercies and the favorable interpositions of His providence in the
course and conclusion of the late war…
one of the engagements in George Washington’s mind was the
retreat from Brooklyn, New York in August 1776 that preserved the
Continental Army he commanded. About eight thousand American troops
had been surrounded by British forces in Brooklyn, at the western end
of Long Island. The British forces, commanded by General Howe, for
some reason, chose not to attack once they had isolated the American
troops at the end of Long Island. They were biding their time,
perhaps giving the Americans a last chance to surrender before a
final assault. As everyone waited, General Washington conceived an
“impossible” plan to save his army. They would evacuate
the troops from Brooklyn in small boats across the East River. It
would take some time to move so many troops in small boats since the
river was a mile wide and the number of boats was limited, but it
might work. Earlier in the day, the wind and rain had prevented the
British fleet from sailing up the East River to cut off any retreat
by water, so the colonial army had free reign of the river at least
until daylight. All night long expert oarsmen ferried the troops
across the river and came back for another load. As dawn approached,
the men began to consider what might happen when the British warships
saw the American troops withdrawing by small boats. They could easily
be blown out of the water. But then as it dawned, by several
historical accounts, including diaries of men who were there, a thick
fog settled over both the British and American encampments. The fog
allowed the American troops and Washington to escape to the safety of
the distant shore. When the fog lifted and the British prepared to
attack, the American army was gone.
was one of many miraculous occurrences that Washington and others
would remember from “the course and conclusion of the late
war.” God really was watching over the men who fought for our
nation so that the United States, a nation founded and built on
biblical principles, could be established and thrive. God can do the
same today for our military forces when they believe for victory and
claim His protection.
principle of trusting God, believing God to assist us and give us
success, is not to the exclusion of the other principles we have
examined, but it is the most important. The teaching of the
Scriptures is obviously needed in order to build a trust in God in
the first place. But God also expects us to apply what we know and
understand and to use common sense. This would include maintaining
and developing extensive military capabilities, avoiding entangling
alliances and establishing a justice system to keep the civil peace.
the people, must be informed and vigilant concerning our nation’s
sovereignty and those principles that – if applied –
strengthen our nation and help to make our people freer and more
prosperous. The first principle to recognize is the importance of
following the one true God and teaching His Word in the nation. A
well-funded and well-prepared military arsenal is also one of the
necessary elements. A system of justice that ensures civil stability
is another. In an era when the United Nations is seeking new vigor to
extend its authority – primarily because of the support lent by
some of our political leaders – we should seek to rescind or
modify those alliances that are no longer in our national interest
and avoid foreign entanglements that are not in our best interests.
This does not mean we should become what some may refer to as
“isolationist,” but wiser in our international relations.
Only by conducting our national affairs according to principles of
God's Word will our nation recover what has been lost of its freedom
obvious point to mention here is that good decisions are required
from our governmental leaders. Sometimes, in spite of our nation’s
political leaders and their poor decisions, freedom has been
maintained by a committed few, whether in government or in the
society-at-large. In many more instances than could be easily
documented, God has protected our nation from great danger and
potential chaos. Some of these pitfalls have arisen because of
terrible decisions by those in leadership positions. The most
desirable situation would be for those in governmental and political
leadership to have an understanding of God and His Word and establish
policies consistent with biblical principles, but this is more likely
to be an exception than a common occurrence.
When the righteous are in authority, the people rejoice: but when the
wicked beareth rule, the people mourn.
leaders can direct the people toward either freedom or slavery,
toward greater security and stability or chaos and destruction. But
in the final analysis, the citizens who organize their thinking
according to biblical truths will be able to properly discern the
true nature of the events and passions of their times. Men and women
who understand the spiritual roots of our freedom and the means of
maintaining it can help to hold our public officials accountable, and
therefore help to maintain the political freedom and national
security that is so important to each citizen.
presence of men and women who stand for God - both in our nation
generally and in our government and armed forces in particular –
is of utmost importance. Without an understanding of God's Word, men
and women wander aimlessly, "blown about with every wind of
doctrine” (Ephesians 4:14). The times in which we live are
spiritually dark. But the light of God and His Word is available to
dispel this darkness and win the struggles of our day. Only in a
spiritual renaissance will our nation experience a political
renaissance, which can restore the American republic, so we may
reassert the sovereignty that is rightfully ours as a nation. Only
then can we begin to become one nation under one God. Then America
will truly be strong and free.
James M. Freeman, Manners
and Customs of the Bible
(Plainfield, New Jersey: Logos
International, 1972, reprint), pp. 190-91.
Smith and Paul L. Murphy (editors), Liberty and Justice, Vol. I,
Forging the Federal Union: American Constitutional Development to
(New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1965), pp. 78, 87-89.
Thomas Flexner, Washington: The Indispensable Man
Little, Brown and Company, 1974), pp. 315-319.
Christopher Dawson, Religion and the Rise of Western Culture
(New York: Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Inc.), p. 24.
Marshall and David Manuel, The Light and the Glory
Tappan, New Jersey: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1977), pp. 312-315.
is President of the Foundation for Constitutional Education.